Analogue multipliers are devices in a circuit that take two analogue signals and combine them into one. The output is the product of both of the inputs. For it to be a true analogue multiplier, the two inputs must be identical signals. If the two signals differ in voltage, the second will be scaled proportionally according to the level of the first, and this is called a voltage controlled amplifer....
What are analogue multipliers used for?
Analogue multipliers can be found in the control circuits of some industrial systems, as well as in radar circuitry. They are also used in frequency mixers.
Types of analogue multiplier
The key difference between analogue multiplier is the number of quadrants used: either one, two or four. One and two quadrant multipliers have simpler circuitry, and will therefore be the default if four quadrants are not needed.
Single quadrant multipliers are used when the signal is of only one polarity (either positive or negative).
Two quadrant multipliers can have one signal that is unipolar and another of either polarity.
Gilbert cells, or four quadrant multipliers, can cancel out unwanted signals as they are double balanced
Audio Amplifier ICs (integrated circuits) is a type of audio amplifier that is built into the chassis of the main product. More generally, audio amplifiers are devices that increase, control and amplify the audio signal strength, or amplitude, of audio signals, to make the sound louder and premium quality.IC Audio amplifiers are useful because they can vastly decrease the size of amplification devices, making it possible to create sophisticated amplification within a small package....
Unlike power amplifiers, they are not standalone devices.What are the IC audio amplifiers used for?Audio amplifier ICs are used in a range of commercial products. They are found in car stereos, televisions, electronic keyboards, and many other devices in which amplification capacity is in-built.Types of audio amp ICsAudio amplifier ICs can be differentiated by several traits: amplifier type, such as digital, operational, or headphone amps maximum power, in watts, depending on the size and scope of amplification you need input and output signal type, depending on whether you want stereo or mono sound
Audio amplifier modules, also known as amplifier boards, are PCB (printed circuit board) modules featuring an audio amplifier chip.Why choose a module over a chip?Audio amp modules are pre-assembled boards which can be integrated easily, without the need for soldering the IC. They often contain other components which work alongside the audio amplifier too....
Therefore they are closer to a plug-and-play option. Modules are sometimes used in prototyping audio amplifier IC designs. Amplifier kits are sometimes interchangeable so you can experiment with different parameters. What is an Audio Power Amplifier?Audio amplifiers, also known as audio amps, are electronic components which boost an electric current within a circuit. They are used to increase or amplify an audio signal input which is louder or of a higher quality. This output is then used in a speaker. How to choose an Audio Amplifier ModuleWhen looking at modules, it is important to consider the input signal and the output signal power you wish to achieve from your amplifier. This is often measured in voltage. Applications for Audio Amplifier Modules:Home automationCommunicationsComputersTransportMultimediaHeadphonesStereo
Audio volume controllers control audio signal and volume with minimal distortion and noise. They're essentially high-performance amplifiers that provide low noise and low distortion. They're used in electronics and are a critical part of any professional audio system....
Why are audio volume controllers important?
Because of the dynamic nature of audio and the amount of variance that can come from different audio sources, it's important that you have control over the amount of gain (or loudness) in your audio system. Audio volume controllers will provide this with no significant distortion or noise in order to preserve the integrity of the source audio signal.
You can connect your audio volume controller to your circuit using wires and solder. It can be surface mounted or attached through mounting holes.
Audio volume controller applications
Some of the applications in which audio volume controllers are used include:
Car audio systems
Broadcast studio equipment
A Comparator is a circuit which accepts two voltages or currents and then switches the output showing which is bigger. Comparators are found in components like analogue to digital converters. Comparators are like operational amplifiers except a comparator is designed to operate with positive feedback and output saturated at one power rail or the other....
How a Comparator works?
A comparator samples two input pins and turns on the output when identifying a difference or similarity.An example is when you have a minus voltage on the inverting Pin and a plus non-inverting. When the voltage, on the non-inverting equals the inverting voltage the Pin turns on. Normally the output Pin is open and switches to ground when the comparator is activated.
Why use a Comparator?
The primary use of a comparator is converting analog to digital (ADC). Two supply voltage are applied and the difference determines a high or low digital signal.
Types of Comparator.
Current sense, Differential / Dual differential, Dual / Dual CMOS, Dual voltage / General voltage, General purpose, Ground sense, High speed / high-speed CMOS, Low current CMOS, Low power / low voltage / low-power CMOS, Micro power, Nano power, Precision, Push/pull output, Quad differential, Rail to rail, Voltage, Window.
Surface mountThrough holeComparator power supply types.DualSingleVarious package types, pins, sizes, channels per chip, PSRR (power supply rejection ratio), CMRR (common mode rejection ratio) are all available.
Current sensing amplifiers measure current by outputting a voltage that is proportional to the flowing power current. A resistor is used to convert the load current to a small voltage which is then accurately amplified. They offer real-time overcurrent protection....
What are the different applications of current sensing amplifiers?
Accurate current sensing is crucial to optimising performance in a range of applications, such as motor control and power management. In devices where battery or power-line monitoring is highly necessary, like laptops and phones, current sensing amplifiers are critical. How to choose the right type of current sensing amplifierThere are several factors that will determine the the type of amplifier you choose, including whether the measurement will be on the high or low side. The sense resistor can be placed either between the supply voltage and load, or between the load and ground. The former is called high-side seinsing, whereas the latter is called low-side sensing. High voltage current sensing amplifiers offer input ranges up to +76V and down to -20V, ideal for applications such as motor control and network routers. Low power current sensing amplifiers help to maximise and extend battery life.
A differential amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that increases the difference between 2 input voltages. Differential amplifiers also suppress and voltage common to the two inputs. A digital amplifier is one on the most used and important components within integrated circuits.Differential Amplifier 2 inputs One inverting One non-inverting...
Why use a Differential Amplifier?
Differential amplifiers are used to amplify balanced differential signals which are used to communicate small signals in electrically noisy environments. The signal wires should be close or wired together and most of the induced noise with be common mode, affecting both wires in the same way.
Differential Amplifier Applications.
The main application of a differential amplifier is to get rid of any noise and voltages that are present in both of the voltage inputs. This noise is present in common mode fluctuating voltage. Differential amplifiers are used in circuits that utilise negative feedback, controlling motors and signal amplification.
Various electronic devices use differential amplifiers.
FM/Am Radio signal recovery Audio pre-amplifiers Microphone pre-amplifiers TV Signal recovery Digital to analogue convertersA Differential amplifier can be configured to operate as single ended amplifier by grounding one of the inputs.Modern differential amplifiers normally sit on a single microchip. Inside the microchip, positive and negative signals are added and become a single output.What is CMRR and PSRR?CMRR – Common mode rejection ratioPSSR – Power supply rejection ratio
Differential line drivers are electrical devices that convey analogue signals, audio or otherwise, across distances with minimal noise pick up....
How do differential line drivers work?
Information in differential line drivers is transmitted using two complementary signals. They send the same electrical signal as two different signals, each on a conductor of its own.The conductors can either be traces on a circuit board or wires that are twisted together.
The voltage between the two signals and not the difference between a single wire and earth (a common return path for electric current), prompts a response by the receiving circuit. Differential line drivers resist electromagnetic noise once the difference between wires has been detected by the receiving circuit.
What are differential line drivers used for?
Differential line drivers are utilised in balanced audio circuitry and digital signalling. They are used to reduce electromagnetic noise in applications such as portable and mobile devices where reducing the supply voltage results in reduced noise immunity, and in computers to reduce electromagnetic interference.
They can be built preferably around differential amplifiers fitted with high-speed, high-output current buffers inside the feedback loop.
Instrumentation amplifiers are a type of precision gain block, a differential amplifier (a type of electronic amplifier that amplifies the voltage difference between two inputs but suppresses any voltage common to the two inputs). Instrumentation Amplifiers are also known as in-amps.Common applications are: Test & Measurement Industrial Devices? Data Acquisition Devices Medical Devices Any noisy environment where large common-mode signals are presentHow do instrumentation amplifiers work?An instrumentation amplifier measures small signals in a noisy environment....
The noise generally is "common-mode noise" (the difference between the noise-free common mode voltage and the actual common mode voltage). An instrumentation amplifier uses its common-mode rejection to distinguish the noise from the signal of interest.What are the instrumentation amplifiers used for?Instrumentation amplifiers are needed in nearly every field of electronics, particularly in the test and measurement industry. They can be used as a voltage follower, selective inversion circuit, a current-to-voltage converter, active rectifier, integrator, a variety of filters, and a voltage comparator.Unlike instrumentation amplifiers (In Amp), operational amplifiers (Op Amp) are high-gain voltage amplifying devices with a differential input.
Isolation Amplifiers are instruments that have been designed to measure the smallest current and voltage signals in the presence of high common mode voltage by providing electrical safety barrier and electrical isolation. They are differential amplifiers that protect data acquisition components from common mode voltages, which are potential differences between instrument ground and signal ground....
How to select a correct isolation amplifier?
There are two main types of isolation amplifiers and the decision of using one or another may depend on several aspects and user needs: Single-ended, floating common - an isolated and quasi-balanced input (the floating common is typically connected to the (-) input of differential amplifier). Suitable for off-ground measurements up to breakdown voltage of the isolation barrier, and exhibits very good common mode rejection (100 dB typical). Differential, floating common - an isolated and balanced input. Suitable for off-ground measurements of the breakdown voltage of the isolation barrier, and exhibits superb common mode rejection (>120 dB).
What is typical application of isolation amplifiers?
Isolation amplifiers are commonly used in test and measurement or medical devices. Also, they are popular in solar and fuel cells construction to profile the performance of individual series-connected voltage cells.
A Iogarithmic amplifier is a type of amplifier- an electronic device that increases the amount of electrical signals. It converts an input current into an output voltage (a flow of electrical current). Typically, the source of this current is a photodiode....
Why are logarithmic amplifiers used?
Logarithmic amplifiers are not only used to create voltage, they're also used to regulate gain (the ratio of two quantities). In the case of a logarithmic amplifier, this is the measurement of the output of a circuit or component in relation to its input.
By using a logarithmic amplifier you can also compress the range of signals in an electronic system because they provide an effective means of dealing with wide dynamic range signals. For example, a system with wide dynamic range may have poor signal-to-noise.
Where are logarithmic amplifiers used?
Logarithmic amplifiers are commonly used in high-speed electronic circuits. Because of their ability to compress signals, they remain a key component in many video, fibre, medical (blood analysis equipment), scientific (material analysers) and wireless systems.
Op Amps, short for Operational Amplifiers, are semiconductor devices commonly used in analogue electronic circuits. They work by receiving an input signal and amplifying it into a stronger output signal. Op Amps offer a very high voltage gain amplifiers. How do Op Amps work?Op Amps provide mathematical operations such as addition, multiplication, differentiation, and integration. They are voltage amplifiers which usually have a differential input and a single-ended output. There are two inputs into an Operational Amplifier which are called inverting (-) and non-inverting (+) inputs. ...
If you were to increase the voltage to the inverting input, the output voltage decreases. Alternatively, if you increase the voltage to the non-inverting input, the output voltage increases. If an equal voltage is supplied to both inputs, the output will not change. What is a differential amplifier?Op Amps are often referred to as differential amplifiers. This is because the output of an Op-Amp is relative to the difference between the input voltages. Where are Op Amps used?Operational amplifiers have a wide variety of uses in electronic circuits. Here are some examples of how they are used:Crystal oscillators and waveform generatorsAudio- and video-frequency pre-amplifiers and buffersIntegratorsComparatorsAnalogue-to-digital (ADC) and digital-to-analogue (DAC) convertersVoltage ClampsAnalogue CalculatorsFiltersDifferentiatorsPrecision rectifiersLinear voltage regulatorsCurrent regulatorsPrecision rectifiersPrecision peak to peak detectors
Programmable gain amplifiers - or PGAs - are a type of electronic amplifier that allow you to control the gain in an electronic circuit (the ratio of output voltage, current or power to input) with digital signals. The gain can be set from less than 1 to over 100 volts....
What do programmable gain amplifiers do?
Programmable gain amplifiers work by increasing the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current) in your electronic circuit.
They use electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude of a signal. The amount of amplification provided by the programmable gain amplifier is measured by its gain.
Applications for programmable gain amplifiers
Common applications for programmable gain amplifiers are motor control, signal and sensor conditioning, as well as in bar code readers and digital cameras. They can also be used for A/D converter driver applications, multiplexed analog applications, data acquisition, industrial instrumentation, test equipment and for use in medical instruments.
RF amplifier ICs - or radio frequency amplifiers - are tuned amplifiers that increase the high-frequency signal used in radio communications. They're used in electronic circuits with other components....
Types of RF amplifiers
RF amplifiers can tune into a desired range of input frequencies. They can also provide gain, buffering and drive for fragile signals. There are several different types of RF amplifiers characterised by their frequency range, supply current, supply voltage, gain and output power.
Common types include:
RF amplifier power gain - if signal is too low to be useful elsewhere in the circuit, it can be increased by this amplifier. The amplifier boosts the signal level with minimum noise or distortion and can even be used with extremely low-level signals, such as those from an antenna.
RF power amplifier - this type of electronic amplifier converts a low-power radio-frequency signal into a higher power signal.
RF amplifiers applications
RF amplifiers have a variety of applications, including communications testing and medical diagnostics as well as voice and data communications.
Radio Frequency (RF) controllers are a broad portfolio of devices used to test, measure and control RF signals. How do RF controllers work?The main application of RF controllers is transmitter power measurements and control....
The output power is measured and compared to certain values in a feedback control circuit so adjustments can be made as required. They will usually operate over a specified frequency spectrum band and dynamic range. If you want to convert a low-power radio frequency into a high power signal, consider the use of RF amplifiers.
What are RF controllers used for?
RF controllers can be used to test whether RF is operating at a certain strength. RF strength is a key factor in keeping up reliable telecommunications because it is essential to maintain stability and range of radio links. RF controllers are also useful in RF circuits and systems for detecting and controlling the transmit power level of the RF signal in a particular band.
A transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is a current to voltage converter which is used to amplify the current output from different types of sensors to a proportional voltage. Transimpedance amplifiers are used with sensors which have a current response that is more linear than the voltage response.Transimpedance amplifiers are also referred to as current to voltage converters or I to V converters.Passive or Active? ...
Passive current to voltage converters uses only passive elements. There are however limitations with these types of amplifiers as the current source and output load must be ideal for proper operation. The output load resistance must be close to infinity, current from the current source must be independent of the voltage and the current source must have infinite internal resistance. As these conditions are virtually impossible to attain, passive current to voltage converters is rarely used. Active current to voltage converters is based on active elements like a bipolar junction transistor (BJT), field effect transistor (FET) or an operational amplifier (opamp). The most common combination is using a transimpedance amplifier with an operational amplifier.
What are the typical applications of the transimpedance amplifier?
There are a lot of possible applications for transimpedance amplifiers due to the amount of day to day electronics we use. A transimpedance amplifier allows for more advanced circuitry such as servomechanisms and light meters.
What is a accuracy of transimpedance amplifier?
The accuracy may depend on many aspects of the signal such as its condition, hysteresis or linearity. Also, the working temperature and environmental conditions have an impact on accuracy. This can be improved by using additional circuit integrated elements e.g. noise filters.What are the most important specifications of TIA?Before making a decision os one TIA or another, you should consider a few most important values e.g: bandwidth noise signal bandwidth gain capacitance
Video amplifiers are amplifier ICs (integrated circuits) designed to process video signals. Amplifiers often referred to as amps, are semiconductor devices found in electronics circuits. They are designed to increase the power of electronic signals. Amplifiers essentially take the input signal and increase either the output voltage, current or power.
The difference between an input and output from the amplifier is referred to as the gain. It is the ratio of the output divided by the input, for voltage, current or power....
Video amplifiers often come in industry standard packages, for example, SOIC, SOT-23 and PDIP.
Where would you use a video amplifier?
Video amplifiers are used anywhere where the video signal level needs to be increased. For example, if you connected a camera to a screen or TV, the video output signal from the camera would need to be increased by an amplifier to meet the requirements of the TV.
Example applications include; video line drivers, ADC/DAC buffers, automotive displays, RGB amplifiers and coax cable drivers.
What is a video operational amplifier?
Operational amplifiers, also known as op-amps, are amplifier devices which offer a very high gain. This means that they offer a high ratio of conversion from the input signal to the output. Video op amps are ideal for applications which require this dramatic step up, for example, in high-quality imaging.
What is the slew rate?
Slew rate in video amplifiers indicates how well an amplifier can handle higher frequency levels. It is measured by the change in voltage within a period of time and the value is given in V/?s.